The whole area of Iran can be divided into four parts: 1/2 mountains as one part, and 1/4 deserts and 1/4 fertile plains as the other part. There are two major ranges of mountains called the Alborz and the Zagros.
The highest peak of Iran (Middle East) is called “Damavand”, 5671m ASL. It is a burned-out volcano with a crater of 400m width. At times, sulfur gas ascends to the top and covers the peak like clouds.
Mount Damavand a potentially active volcano, is a stratovolcano which is the highest peak in Iran and the highest volcano in Asia; it has a special place in Persian mythology and folklore. It is in the middle of the Alborz range, near the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, in Amol county, Mazandaran province 66 kilometres (41 miles) northeast of the city of Tehran.
Mount Damāvand is the 12th most prominent peak in the world, and the second most prominent in Asia after Mount Everest. It is the highest volcanic mountain in Asia, and part of the volcanic seven summits mountaineering challenge.
According to many climbers, due to the effect of the day heat and sunlight on sulfuric rocks which spread the smell of sulfur, it is better to climb in the dark of the night. But it seems that sunlight does not have much effect on this factor, and the value of resting during the night and climbing the summit with more energy in the early morning has a particular priority.
Alam-Kūh also Alam Kooh – Mount Alam – is in Alborz Mountain Range in north of Iran, Mazandaran Province, forming a peak of Takhte Suleyman Massif. It is located in Kelardasht District of Mazandaran Province of Iran. With an elevation of 4,850 meters, it is the second highest peak in Iran.
The mountain range supports permanent snow and glaciers. Although the southern slopes of the range tend to be dry and barren, the northern valleys leading to the Caspian Sea (which offer the best approaches to the mountains) are wet and lush with vegetation.
Sabalan or Savalan in Azeri pronunciation (4811m) is the third highest mountain in Iran. This inactive strata volcano mountain is famous for its amazing and wonderful lake on the summit! The mountain is located in Ardabil province of Northwestern of Iran. The permanent Crater Lake and stunning scenery of the nature plus different slopes of the mountain (easy Northeast face to the technical north glacier or the rocky south flank) offer the climbers to have a variety of choices. The mountain is located in a continental climate with hot, dry summers and extremely cold winters. Even in June and July you may encounter snow at elevations near the peak. So if you are going to climb in these months you should be equipped with suitable equipment and warm clothes. If you want to see the lake unfrozen you had better climb it in the middle of Mordad (the 5th month of Iranian calendar-beginning of August). Precipitation falls primarily as snow in late autumn, winter, and spring, and is sufficient to sustain seven glaciers near the summit above 4,000 meters (13,000 ft.). There are also extensive rock glaciers, several of which are more than 3 km (2 mi) in length.